LOTERRE - Linked Open TERminology REsources

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Presentation of Loterre / Data formats and models / Terminological resources / Available services

Presentation of Loterre

Loterre (Linked open terminology resources) is a platform dedicated to the exposure of multidisciplinary terminological resources, put on-line by the Inist. Relying on a triplestore, it is fully integrated into the theme of the web of data and allows browsing, querying, and downloading of the resources.

Access to Loterre resources is open to everyone, but their use depends on the licence that the user is bound by.

The Loterre site is not restricted to Inist terminological resources. It offers its display services to other producers of terminological data, provided they have requested the service using the proposition form.

The Inist will supply a technological support to its partners, to convert resources that are stored in formats such as xml, xls, csv, etc into SKOS/RDF.



Applications used

To offer its users access to terminologies, Loterre calls upon various open-source tools:

  •     a Jena-Fuseki Apache triplestore
  •     Skosmos, to allow resources to be browsed on line (version 1.10)
  •     The Skosmos REST API to allow a distant software agent to query and recover data
  •     YASGUI and Sparklis for the formulation of SPARQL queries
  •     ezArk to simplify the distribution of ARK identifiers where necessary

Data formats and models

The terminological data integrated in the triplestore are expressed according to a model of the type “extended SKOS”, which associates a certain number of categories belonging to other formats or languages (Dublin Core, Isothes, OWL, RDFS, etc.) to the SKOS standard.

Ontology of Loterre (click on the picture to increase its size)

Description of the resources integrated into Loterre

It is aimed, wherever possible, that the resources integrated into the triplestore conform to good practices of the W3C relative to the publication of linked data.

Ideally, they should respect the criteria allocated to “5 star” data: Five Stars of Linked Data Vocabulary Use

  • Data freely accessible on the web (with the mention of an open licence);
  • Data in a structured format (readable by the machine);
  • No-ownership format (CSV, RDF, etc.);
  • W3C and URI standards to identify each resource;
  • Data linked to other RDF data via alignments.


Schematically, the terminological resources exposed on Loterre can be of the type:

  • Vocabulary in the wider sense of the term;
  • Glossaries, lists of terms;
  • Thesaurus;
  • Taxonomies (classification plans and similar elements).

The data of lexical resource types, resources of content or ontology analyses, can only be integrated into Loterre if they are converted into the SKOS format, which can involve a loss of information compared to the original content.

Multilingualism and structuring

The resources may:

  • Be monolingual, provided the language is French or English;
  • Be multilingual, provided that one of the languages is either French or English;
  • Present a hierarchy: simple, multiple, or none;
  • Include groupings (collections, groups, fields, facets).

The possibilities of posting and searching in a given language are linked to the characteristics of exposure/queries tools connected to the triplestore.


The resources must have a licence stating the modalities of their availability and their re-use.

Unless there is mention to the contrary, the terminologies produced by the Inist and published in Loterre are covered by a CC-By 4.0 licence.

Scientific cover

The scientific cover of data exposed on Loterre is multidisciplinary and depends on one or several of the following scientific fields:

  • Sciences and technology
    • Mathematics
    • Algebra
    • Mathematical analysis
    • Numerical analysis, scientific computation
    • Combinatorics, ordered structures
    • Geometry
    • Probability and statistics
    • Dynamic systems, global analysis and analysis on manifolds
    • Group theory
    • Topology, manifolds and cell complexes
  • Physics
    • Acoustics
    • Crystallography
    • Electromagnetism, optics
    • Solid mechanics, fluid dynamics, rheology
    • Metrology
    • Atomic and molecular physics
    • Condensed-matter physics
    • Physics of gases and plasmas
    • Nuclear physics
    • Classical physics, quantum physics, statistical physics, relativity and gravitation
    • Thermodynamics, heat transfer
  • Earth and universe sciences
    • Aeronomy, meteorology, climatology
    • Astronomy
    • Geology, internal geophysics
    • Glaciology
    • Oceanography
  • Chemistry
    • Analytical chemistry
    • Theoretical chemistry, general chemistry and physical chemistry
    • Inorganic chemistry
    • Organic chemistry
  • Engineering
    • Aeronautics, transportation
    • Operational research, control theory
    • Electronics, computer sciences
    • Energy, electrical engineering, electrical power engineering
    • Chemical engineering, chemical and parachemical industry
    • Civil engineering, buildings and public works
    • Mechanical engineering
    • Metallurgy
    • Polymer industry, paints, wood
    • Telecommunication, signal theory and processing
  • Nanosciences, nanotechnology
  • Life sciences, environmental sciences
    • Biology, health
      • Molecular and structural biology, biochemistry
      • Genetics, genomics, bioinformatics
      • Animal cellular and developmental biology, zoology, veterinary sciences
      • Physiology, pathophysiology, systemic medical biology
      • Neurobiology
      • Immunology, microbiology, virology, parasitology
      • Epidemiology, public health, clinical research, biomedical technologies, pharmacology, toxicology, medical sciences
    • Environmental sciences
      • Plant cellular and developmental biology, botany
      • Evolution, ecology, population biology
      • Biotechnologies, environmental sciences, synthetic biology, agronomy, forestry, food industry
  • Humanities and social sciences
    • Markets and organisations
      • Economy
      • Finance, management
    • Standards, institutions and social behaviour
      • Law
      • Political sciences
      • Anthropology and ethnology
      • Sociology, demography
      • Information and communication sciences
    • Space, environment and society
      • Geography
      • Land and urban planning
      • Architecture
    • Human spirit, language, education
      • Linguistics
      • Psychology
      • Educational sciences
      • Science and technology in physical activities and sport
    • Languages, texts, arts and cultures
      • Ancient and french languages and literature, comparative literature
      • Foreign literatures and languages, civilisations, regional cultures and languages
      • Arts
      • Philosophy, religion sciences, theology
    • Ancient and contemporary worlds
      • History
      • History of art
      • Archeology

Selection of resources

The owners of the Loterre site reserve the right to operate a moderation of the propositions and may refuse to integrate a resource into Loterre if they consider that it doesn’t respect the criteria of quality and format presented here.

Services available in Loterre

In addition to downloading terminological data, Loterre offers a range of services for terminology producers, whether or not they want to share their work in Loterre.
n.b.: The user data are not stored by Inist-CNRS.

  • The Check, Transform and Align services aim at facilitating the creation and enrichment of SKOS/RDF-XML terminological files, in accordance cc with the FAIR data principles (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, Reusable). They enable:
    • To create a SKOS/RDF-XML file from a csv file (Transform)
    • To check, correct or enrich SKOS/RDF-XML terminological files (Check)
    • To add ARK identifiers to concepts included in a SKOS/RDF-XML terminological file (Transform)
    • To convert SKOS/RDF-XML terminological files to PDF, HTML or CSV files (Transform)
    • To align a terminology (search for semantic equivalents) with a vocabulary stored in Loterre, in order to enrich it (Align)